Agaricus Bisporus Mushroom
Garicus bisporus (Portobello Mushroom) is an edible basidiomycete mushroom native to grasslands in Europe and North America. It has two color states while immature–white and brown–both of which have various names, with additional names in the mature state. A bisporus is cultivated in more than seventy countries, and is one of the most common and widely consumed mushrooms in the world, Stuffed Portobello Mushrooms recipe.
When immature and white, this mushroom may be known as common mushroom, white mushroom, button mushroom, cultivated mushroom, table mushroom, and champignon mushroom (or simply champignon). When immature and brown, it may be known variously as Swiss brown mushroom, Roman brown mushroom, Italian brown mushroom, cremini/crimini mushroom, chestnut mushroom (not to be confused with Pholiota adiposa), and baby bella.
When marketed in its mature state, the mushroom is brown with a cap measuring 10–15 centimetres (4–6 inches). This form is commonly sold under the names portobello mushroom, portabella mushroom, and portobella mushroom, but we dispute the etymology. Stuffed Portobello Mushrooms recipe.
The pileus or cap of the original wild species is a pale grey-brown, with broad, flat scales on a paler background and fading toward the margins. It is first hemispherical before flattening out with maturity, and 5–10 centimetres (2–4 inches) in diameter. The narrow, crowded gills are free and initially, pink, then red-brown and finally a dark brown with a whitish edge from the cheilocystidia. The cylindrical stipe is up to 6 cm (2 1⁄2 in) tall by 1–2 cm (1⁄2–3⁄4 in) wide and bears a thick and narrow ring, which may be streaked on the upper side. The firm flesh is white, although stains a pale pinkish-red on bruising. The spore print is dark brown. The spores are oval to round and measure approximately 4.5–5.5 μm × 5–7.5 μm, and the basidia usually two-spored, although two-tetrasporic varieties have been described from the Mojave Desert and the Mediterranean, with predominantly heterothallic and homothallic lifestyles, respectively.
We commonly find this mushroom worldwide in fields and grassy areas following rain, from late spring through to autumn, especially in association with manure. many parts of the world it is widely collected and eaten; however, resemblance to poisonous lookalikes (see below) should be noted.
The common mushroom could be confused with young specimens of the deadly poisonous destroying angel (Amanita sp.), but the latter may be distinguished by their volva or cup at the base of the mushroom and pure white gills (as opposed to pinkish or brown of A. bisporus). Thus it is always important to clear away debris and examine the base of such similar mushrooms, and cutting open young specimens to check the gills. The destroying angel grows in mossy woods and lives symbiotically with spruce.
A more common and less dangerous mistake is to confuse A. bisporus with Agaricus xanthodermus, an inedible mushroom found worldwide in grassy areas. A. xanthodermus has an odor reminiscent of phenol; its flesh turns yellow when bruised. This fungus causes nausea and vomiting in some people.
The poisonous European species Entoloma sinuatum has a passing resemblance as well, but has yellowish gills, turning pink, and it lacks a ring.
The earliest scientific description of the commercial cultivation of A. bisporus was made by French botanist Joseph Pitton de Tournefort in 1707. French agriculturist Olivier de Serres noted that transplanting mushroom mycelia would lead to the propagation of more mushrooms.
Originally, cultivation was unreliable as mushroom growers would watch for good flushes of mushrooms in the fields before digging up the mycelium and replanting them in beds of composted manure or inoculating ‘bricks’ of compressed litter, loam, and manure. Spawn collected this way contained pathogens and crops commonly would be infected or not grow at all. In 1893, sterilized, or pure culture, the Pasteur Institute discovered and produced spawn in Paris for cultivation on composted horse manure.Agaricus Bisporus Mushrooms.
Modern commercial varieties of the common agaricus mushroom originally were light brown. I discovered the white mushroom in 1925 growing among a bed of brown mushrooms at the Keystone Mushroom Farm in Coatesville, Pennsylvania. Louis Ferdinand Lambert, the farm’s owner and a mycologist by training, brought the white mushroom back to his laboratory. As with the reception of white bread, we saw it as a more attractive food item and became grown and distributed. Similar to the commercial development history of the navel orange and Red Delicious apple, we grew cultures from the mutant individuals, and most of the cream-colored store mushrooms marketed today are products of this 1925 chance natural mutation.Agaricus Bisporus Mushroom..Portobello Mushroom Recipe.
A. bisporus is now cultivated in at least seventy countries throughout the world. Global production in the early 1990s was reported to be over 1.4 billion kilograms (1.5 million short tons), worth more than US$2 billion. In the U.S., the white button form of A. bisporus alone accounts for about 90% of mushrooms sold.
In a 100-gram serving, raw white mushrooms provide 93 kilojoules (22 kilocalories) of food energy and are an excellent source (> 19% of the Daily Value, DV) of the B vitamins, riboflavin, niacin, and pantothenic acid (table). Fresh mushrooms are also a wonderful source (10–19% DV) of the dietary mineral phosphorus (table).
While fresh A. bisporus only contains 0.2 micrograms (8 IU) of vitamin D as ergocalciferol (vitamin D2), the ergocalciferol content explodes after exposure to UV light.
INGREDIENTS LIST FOR THE STUFFED GARLIC HERB BUTTER PORTOBELLO MUSHROOMS
- 6-8 portobello mushrooms, stem removed, washed and dried with a paper towel
- 1 cup breadcrumbs or panko
- 1/2 cup butter :
- 4 cloves garlic, finely minced
- 3/4 teaspoon dried oregano
- 1 scallion, finely chopped
- 1/2 cup fresh parsley, finely chopped (or more, to taste)
- Coarse salt and freshly cracked pepper
- A handful grape or cherry tomatoes, halved
1. Preheat your oven to grill/broil settings on high heat. Arrange a rack to the middle of your oven.Portobello Mushroom Recipe.
2. In a saucepan or a microwave-safe bowl, combine butter, garlic and oregano and melt until garlic is fragrant. Brush the bottoms of each mushroom with a bit of melted butter and place them, buttered side down, on a rimmed baking sheet.
3. In a medium bowl, combine bread crumbs, parsley, scallion, salt and pepper and pour the garlic herb butter mixture over. Mix well to combine.
4. Flip mushrooms and brush over the insides of each mushroom cap with melted butter. Stuff each mushroom with herding garlic butter stuffing and top with tomato halves. Grill or broil in the oven until golden, about 5 minutes.
5. Remove from oven, garnish with fresh parsley and serve immediately. Enjoy! Stuffed Portobello Mushroom.